S. Augui, G. Filion, S. Huart, E. Nora, M. Guggiari et al., Sensing X Chromosome Pairs Before X Inactivation via a Novel X-Pairing Region of the Xic, Science, vol.318, issue.5856, pp.1632-1638, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1149420

S. Augui, E. Nora, and E. Heard, Regulation of X-chromosome inactivation by the X-inactivation centre, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.258, issue.6, pp.429-471, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrg2987

M. Barr and E. Bertram, A morphological distinction between neurones of the male and female, and the behaviour of the nucleolar satellite during accelerated nucleoprotein synthesis, Nature, 1949.

A. Baer and J. Bode, Coping with kinetic and thermodynamic barriers: RMCE, an efficient strategy for the targeted integration of transgenes, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol.12, issue.5, pp.473-80, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0958-1669(00)00248-2

A. Beletskii, Y. Hong, J. Pehrson, M. Egholm, and W. Strauss, PNA interference mapping demonstrates functional domains in the noncoding RNA Xist, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.98, issue.16, pp.9215-9235, 2001.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.161173098

D. Muzny, C. Lawrence, H. Willard, P. Avner, and A. Ballabio, Characterization of a murine gene expressed from the inactive X chromosome, Nature, vol.351, issue.6324, pp.325-334, 1991.

S. Rastan, Conservation of position and exclusive expression of mouse Xist from the inactive X chromosome, Nature, vol.351, issue.6324, pp.329-360, 1991.

B. Cattanach and C. Williams, Evidence of non-random X chromosome activity in the mouse, Genetical Research, vol.12, issue.03, 1972.
DOI : 10.1126/science.140.3570.976

W. Chao, K. Huynh, R. Spencer, L. Davidow, and J. Lee, CTCF, a Candidate Trans-Acting Factor for X-Inactivation Choice, Science, vol.295, issue.5553, pp.345-352, 2002.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1065982

C. Chureau, S. Chantalat, A. Romito, A. Galvani, L. Duret et al., Ftx is a noncoding RNA which affects Xist expression and chromatin structure within the X-inactivation center region, Hum Mol Genet Feb, vol.1520, issue.4, pp.705-723, 2010.

P. Clerc and P. Avner, Role of the region 3' to Xist exon 6 in the counting process of X-chromosome inactivation, Nature Genetics, vol.19, issue.3, pp.249-53, 1998.
DOI : 10.1038/924

M. Donohoe, X. Zhang, L. Mcginnis, J. Biggers, E. Li et al., Targeted Disruption of Mouse Yin Yang 1 Transcription Factor Results in Peri-Implantation Lethality, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.19, issue.10, 1999.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.19.10.7237

M. Donohoe, L. Zhang, N. Xu, Y. Shi, and J. Lee, Identification of a Ctcf Cofactor, Yy1, for the X Chromosome Binary Switch, Molecular Cell, vol.25, issue.1, pp.43-56, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.11.017

K. Dunn, H. Zhao, and J. Davie, The insulator binding protein CTCF associates with the nuclear matrix, Experimental Cell Research, vol.288, issue.1, pp.218-241, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0014-4827(03)00185-X

M. Evans and M. Kaufman, Establishment in culture of pluripotential cells from mouse embryos, Nature, vol.131, issue.5819, 1981.
DOI : 10.1038/292154a0

G. Filippova, Genetics and Epigenetics of the Multifunctional Protein CTCF, Curr Top Dev Biol, vol.80, pp.337-60, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0070-2153(07)80009-3

M. Goll and T. Bestor, EUKARYOTIC CYTOSINE METHYLTRANSFERASES, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol.74, issue.1, pp.481-514, 2005.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.biochem.74.010904.153721

S. Gordon, G. Akopyan, H. Garban, and B. Bonavida, Transcription factor YY1: structure, function, and therapeutic implications in cancer biology, Oncogene, vol.15, issue.8, pp.1125-1167, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.onc.1209080

Y. Hasegawa, N. Brockdorff, S. Kawano, K. Tsutui, K. Tsutui et al., The matrix protein hnRNP U is required for chromosomal localization of Xist RNA. Dev Cell, pp.469-76, 2010.

K. Huynh and J. Lee, Inheritance of a pre-inactivated paternal X chromosome in early mouse embryos, Nature, vol.426, issue.6968, pp.857-62, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nature02222

Y. Jeon and J. Lee, YY1 tethers Xist RNA to the inactive X nucleation center. Cell, Jul, vol.8146, issue.1, pp.119-152, 2011.

I. Jonkers, T. Barakat, E. Achame, K. Monkhorst, A. Kenter et al., RNF12 Is an X-Encoded Dose-Dependent Activator of X Chromosome Inactivation, Cell, vol.139, issue.5, pp.999-1011, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2009.10.034

J. Kim, A. Hinz, A. Bergmann, J. Huang, I. Ovcharenko et al., Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinting control regions, Genome Research, vol.16, issue.7, pp.901-912, 2006.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.5091406

J. Kim, C. Faulk, and J. Kim, Retroposition and evolution of the DNA-binding motifs of YY1, YY2 and REX1, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.35, issue.10, pp.3442-52, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkm235

T. Kim, Z. Abdullaev, A. Smith, K. Ching, D. Loukinov et al., Analysis of the vertebrate insulator protein CTCF-binding sites in the human genome. Cell, pp.1231-1276, 2007.

J. Lee, L. Davidow, and D. Warshawsky, Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre, Nature Genetics, vol.21, issue.4, pp.400-404, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/7734

J. Lee and N. Lu, Targeted Mutagenesis of Tsix Leads to Nonrandom X Inactivation, Cell, vol.99, issue.1, pp.47-57, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80061-6

M. Lyon, Gene action in the X-chromosome of the mouse (Mus musculus L.). Nature, 1961.

M. Makhlouf and C. Rougeulle, Linking X chromosome inactivation to pluripotency: Necessity or fate? Trends Mol Med, pp.329-365, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molmed.2011.02.001

M. Makhlouf, A. Oldfield, J. Ouimette, P. Navarro, and C. Rougeulle, A prominent and conserved role for YY1 in Xist transcriptional activation, Nature Communications, vol.90
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkp335

Y. Marahrens, B. Panning, J. Dausman, W. Strauss, and R. Jaenisch, Xist-deficient mice are defective in dosage compensation but not spermatogenesis., Genes & Development, vol.11, issue.2, pp.156-66, 1997.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.11.2.156

URL : http://www.genesdev.org/cgi/content/short/11/2/156

G. Martin, Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.78, issue.12, pp.7634-7642, 1981.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.78.12.7634

P. Navarro, S. Pichard, C. Ciaudo, P. Avner, and C. Rougeulle, Tsix transcription across the Xist gene alters chromatin conformation without affecting Xist transcription: implications for X-chromosome inactivation, Genes & Development, vol.19, issue.12, pp.1474-84, 2005.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.341105

P. Navarro, D. Page, P. Avner, and C. Rougeulle, Tsix-mediated epigenetic switch of a CTCF-flanked region of the Xist promoter determines the Xist transcription program, Genes & Development, vol.20, issue.20, pp.2787-92, 2006.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.389006

P. Navarro and P. Avner, An embryonic story: Analysis of the gene regulative network controlling Xist expression in mouse embryonic stem cells, BioEssays, vol.105, issue.7, pp.581-589, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/bies.201000019

P. Navarro, A. Oldfield, J. Legoupi, N. Festuccia, A. Dubois et al., Molecular coupling of Tsix regulation and pluripotency, Nature, vol.465, issue.7322, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nature09496

N. Nguyen, X. Zhang, N. Olashaw, and E. Seto, Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterization of the Transcription Factor YY2, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.279, issue.24, pp.25927-25961, 2004.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M402525200

T. Ohhata, C. Senner, M. Hemberger, and A. Wutz, Lineage-specific function of the noncoding Tsix RNA for Xist repression and Xi reactivation in mice, Genes & Development, vol.25, issue.16, pp.1702-1717, 2011.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.16997911

R. Ohlsson, R. Renkawitz, and V. Lobanenkov, CTCF is a uniquely versatile transcription regulator linked to epigenetics and disease, Trends in Genetics, vol.17, issue.9, pp.520-527, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-9525(01)02366-6

S. Ohno, W. Kaplan, and R. Kinosita, Formation of the sex chromatin by a single X-chromosome in liver cells of Rattus norvegicus, Experimental Cell Research, vol.18, issue.2, pp.415-423, 1959.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-4827(59)90031-X

M. Okano, S. Xie, and E. Li, Cloning and characterization of a family of novel mammalian DNA (cytosine-5) methyltransferases; Nat Genet, pp.219-239, 1998.

A. Oldfield, Etude du réseau transcriptionnel du gène Xist, acteur principal de l'inactivation du chromosome X. Thèse de l, 2010.

R. Ohlsson and V. Lobanenkov, Familial cases of point mutations in the XIST promoter reveal a correlation between CTCF binding and pre-emptive choices of X chromosome inactivation, Hum Mol Genet, vol.14, issue.7, pp.953-65, 2005.

S. Rastan, Non-random X-chromosome inactivation in mouse X-autosome translocation embryos-location of the inactivation centre, J Embryol Exp Morphol, vol.78, pp.1-22, 1983.

D. Qi and K. Scholthof, A one-step PCR-based method for rapid and efficient site-directed fragment deletion, insertion, and substitution mutagenesis, Journal of Virological Methods, vol.149, issue.1, pp.85-90, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jviromet.2008.01.002

T. Sado, Y. Hoki, and H. Sasaki, Tsix Silences Xist through Modification of Chromatin Structure, Developmental Cell, vol.9, issue.1, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.devcel.2005.05.015

D. Schübeler, D. Macalpine, D. Scalzo, C. Wirbelauer, C. Kooperberg et al., The histone modification pattern of active genes revealed through genome-wide chromatin analysis of a higher eukaryote, Genes & Development, vol.18, issue.11, pp.1263-71, 2004.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1198204

Y. Shi, J. Lee, and K. .. Galvin, Everything you have ever wanted to know about Yin Yang 1......, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer, vol.1332, issue.2, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-419X(96)00044-3

B. Strahl and C. Allis, The language of covalent histone modifications, Nature, vol.96, issue.6765, pp.41-46, 2000.
DOI : 10.1038/47412

N. Takagi and M. Sasaki, Preferential inactivation of the paternally derived X chromosome in the extraembryonic membranes of the mouse, Nature, vol.70, issue.5519, pp.640-642, 1975.
DOI : 10.1038/256640a0

M. Thomas and E. Seto, Unlocking the mechanisms of transcription factor YY1: are chromatin modifying enzymes the key?, Gene, vol.236, issue.2, pp.197-208, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00261-9

D. Tian, S. Sun, and J. Lee, The long noncoding RNA, Jpx, is a molecular switch for X chromosome inactivation. Cell, pp.390-403, 2010.

C. Waddington, The Epigenotype, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.41, issue.1, pp.10-13, 1942.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/dyr184